For full versions of posted research articles readers are encouraged to email requests for "electronic reprints" (text file, PDF files, FAX copies) to the corresponding or lead author, who is highlighted in the posting.
Saturday, July 25, 2009
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Volume 37, Issue 2, September 2009, Pages 214-218
Dental/Oral health of alcohol-dependent persons and substance abusers is often neglected. It is not clear that alcohol dependence has effects on oral health beyond those expected in nonalcoholic persons of similar socioeconomic status (SES). Study objectives were to examine the personal dental care habits, ability to access professional dental care, and the types of services received and to examine their effect on the oral health of alcohol-dependent persons and substance abusers.
Access to professional dental care was inversely associated with periodontitis in the alcohol-dependent group (p < .05). Alcohol dependence may increase plaque levels above that seen in race, gender, age, and SES-matched controls, but professional dental care can limit the subsequent development of periodontal disease in these people.
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Friday, July 24, 2009
Special Editors: William DeJong, Ph.D., Mary E. Larimer, Ph.D., Mark D. Wood, Ph.D.
Dejong, W., Larimer, M.E., Wood, M.D., and Hartman, R.NIAAA’s Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention Page 5
Hingson, R.W., Zha, W., and Weitzman, E.R.Magnitude of and Trends in Alcohol-Related Mortality and Morbidity Among U.S. College Students Ages 18-24, 1998-2005 Page 12
Comprehensive Campus–Community Prevention Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems in a College Population Page 21
Trends in alcohol use and drunkenness varied by country. Drinking and drunkenness remained higher among boys than girls, but the gap between boys and girls declined and girls appear to be catching up with boys in some countries
Thursday, July 23, 2009
Wednesday, July 22, 2009
New York Magazine July 20, 2009 Issue
“Supermarkets exhibiting the morality of a crack dealer” Select Committee told
‘Nightlife and crime: Social order and governance in international perspective’ by Phil Hadfield Reviewed by Geoff Munro
Tuesday, July 21, 2009
Policymakers and other stakeholders can use cost-benefit analysis as an informative tool for decisionmaking for substance abuse prevention. This report reveals the importance of supporting effective prevention programs as part of a comprehensive substance abuse prevention strategy. The following patterns of use, their attendant costs, and the potential cost savings are analyzed:
- Extent of substance abuse among youth
- Costs of substance abuse to the Nation and to States
- Cost savings that could be gained if effective prevention policies, programs, and services were implemented nationwide
- Programs and policies that are most cost beneficial
The cost of substance abuse could be offset by a nationwide implementation of effective prevention policies and programs. SAMHSA’s Strategic Prevention Framework should include a planning step that considers cost-benefit ratios. Communities should consider a comprehensive prevention strategy based on their unique needs and characteristics and use cost-benefit ratios to help guide their decisions. Model programs should include data on costs and estimated cost-benefit ratios to help guide prevention planning.
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Drug and Alcohol Dependence Article in Press 21 July 2009
Alcohol use frequently onsets and shows rapid growth during the adolescent years, but few studies have examined growth in two indicators, namely in use and in volume given use, with prediction from key risk factors measured across the adolescent years.
Findings indicated that alcohol use by both parents and peers were associated with initial levels of alcohol use and volume, but increases in peer use predicted growth in these indicators. Parental monitoring showed a protective effect on growth in volume in high school.
Alcohol use by members of the adolescent's social network is critical to initiation of use, and peer use is critical to growth. With these predictors specific to alcohol use in the model, none of the general risk factors for antisocial behavior were significant.
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Hormones and Behavior Article in Press, 15 July 2009
Alcoholism is a complex disorder that represents an important contributor to health problems worldwide and that is difficult to encompass with a single preclinical model. Additionally, alcohol (ethanol) influences the function of many neurotransmitter systems, with the interaction at γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors being integral for ethanol's reinforcing and several withdrawal-related effects.
Given that some steroid derivatives exert rapid membrane actions as potent positive modulators of GABAA receptors and exhibit a similar pharmacological profile to that of ethanol, studies in the laboratory manipulated GABAergic steroid levels and determined the impact on ethanol's rewarding- and withdrawal-related effects. Manipulations focused on the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone (ALLO), since it is the most potent endogenous GABAergic steroid identified.
The underlying hypothesis is that fluctuations in GABAergic steroid levels (and the resultant change in GABAergic inhibitory tone) alter sensitivity to ethanol, leading to changes in the positive motivational or withdrawal-related effects of ethanol.
This review describes results that emphasize sex differences in the effects of ALLO and the manipulation of its biosynthesis on alcohol reward- versus withdrawal-related behaviors, with females being less sensitive to the modulatory effects of ALLO on ethanol-drinking behaviors but more sensitive to some steroid manipulations on withdrawal-related behaviors.
These findings imply the existence of sex differences in the sensitivity of GABAA receptors to GABAergic steroids within circuits relevant to alcohol reward versus withdrawal. Thus, sex differences in the modulation of GABAergic neurosteroids may be an important consideration in understanding and developing therapeutic interventions in alcoholics.
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The lifetime risk of heart failure at age 40 years is approximately 1 in 5 in the general population; however, little is known about the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and the remaining lifetime risk of heart failure.
To examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and the lifetime risk of heart failure in a large cohort of men.
During a mean follow-up of 22.4 years, 1200 men developed heart failure. Overall, the lifetime risk of heart failure was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-14.7%) at age 40 years. Lifetime risk remained constant in men who survived free of heart failure through age 70 years and reached 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4%-11.7%) at age 80 years. Lifetime risk of heart failure was higher in men with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Healthy lifestyle habits (normal body weight, not smoking, regular exercise, moderate alcohol intake, consumption of breakfast cereals, and consumption of fruits and vegetables) were individually and jointly associated with a lower lifetime risk of heart failure, with the highest risk in men adhering to none of the 6 lifestyle factors (21.2%; 95% CI, 16.8%-25.6%) and the lowest risk in men adhering to 4 or more desirable factors (10.1%; 95% CI, 7.9%-12.3%).
In this cohort of apparently healthy men, adherence to healthy lifestyle factors is associated with a lower lifetime risk of heart failure.
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- “First Nation Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary,”
- “Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Disorders among American Indian Women in Primary Care,” and
- “The Effect of Near-miss Rate and Card Control when American Indians and Non-Indians Gamble in a Laboratory Situation: The Influence of Alcohol.”
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Monday, July 20, 2009
AERC Alcohol Academy launch event - summary and slides
The launch of the AERC Alcohol Academy took place last month in London with a one day event of workshops and presentations. The event was set up to pilot and deliver the academy’s objectives of facilitating networking and developing skills and learning for alcohol coordinators and strategic leads. . . . . . .
- One out of every 14 hospital stays - 2.3 million stays - was related to substance disorders in 2004, a federal study found.
- Total medical costs were reduced 26 percent among one group of patients that received addiction treatment.
- A group of at-risk alcohol users who received brief counseling recorded 20 percent fewer emergency department visits and 37 percent fewer days of hospitalization.
Language, Stigma, and Recovery Representation
This brief essay describes why this "consumer" terminology is counterproductive and suggests other ways to describe the critical role that people seeking or in long-term recovery, their families, and friends play in the design, delivery, and evaluation of addiction treatment and recovery support services.