To support the free and open dissemination of research findings and information on alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. To encourage open access to peer-reviewed articles free for all to view.

For full versions of posted research articles readers are encouraged to email requests for "electronic reprints" (text file, PDF files, FAX copies) to the corresponding or lead author, who is highlighted in the posting.


Saturday, October 2, 2010

Brain neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone in mediating stress and anxiety

Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have been implicated not only in acute regulation of stress/anxiety-related behaviors, but adaptations and changes in these neuropeptide systems may also participate in the regulation of behavior and endocrine responses during chronic stress. NPY is an endogenous anxiolytic neuropeptide, while CRH has anxiogenic properties upon central administration.

Changes in these neuropeptide systems may contribute to disease states and give us indications for putative treatment targets for stress/anxiety disorders as well as alcohol/drug dependence.

In this review, we briefly present these two systems and review their involvement in mediating the responses to acute and chronic stressors, as well as their possible roles in the development and progression of stress/anxiety disorders.

We suggest that neuropeptides may be attractive in treatment development for stress/anxiety disorders, as well as for alcohol/drug dependence, based on their specificity and activity following exposure to external challenges, i.e. stressors, and their differential adaptations during transition from an acute to a chronic stress exposure state.

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Friday, October 1, 2010

Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death in women

Moderate alcohol intake is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the association with sudden cardiac death (SCD) is less clear. In men, heavy alcohol consumption may increase risk of SCD, whereas light-to-moderate alcohol intake may lower risk. There are no parallel data among women.
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between alcohol intake and risk of SCD among women and to investigate how this risk compared to other forms of CHD.
We conducted a prospective cohort study among 85,067 women from the Nurses' Health Study who were free of chronic disease at baseline. Alcohol intake was assessed every 4 years through questionnaires. Primary endpoints included SCD, fatal CHD, and nonfatal myocardial infarction.
We found a U-shaped association between alcohol intake and risk of SCD, with the lowest risk among women who drank 5.0–14.9 g/day of alcohol (P for quadratic trend = 0.02). Compared to abstainers, the multivariate relative risk (95% confidence interval) for SCD was 0.79 (0.55–1.14) for former drinkers, 0.77 (0.57-1.06) for 0.1–4.9 g/day, 0.64 (0.43–0.95) for 5.0–14.9 g/day, 0.68 (0.38–1.23) for 15.0–29.9 g/day, and 1.15 (0.70–1.87) for ≥30.0 g/day. In contrast, the relationship of alcohol intake and nonfatal and fatal CHD was more linear (P for linear trend <.001).
In this cohort of women, the relationship between light-to-moderate alcohol intake and SCD is U-shaped, with a nadir at 5.0–14.9 g/day. Low levels of alcohol intake do not raise the risk of SCD and may lower risk in women.

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News Release - Alcohol consumers are becoming the norm, UT Southwestern analysis finds

More people are drinking than 20 years ago, according to a UT Southwestern Medical Center analysis of national alcohol consumption patterns. Gathered from more than 85,000 respondents, the data suggests that a variety of factors, including social, economic and ethnic influences and pressures, are involved in the increase.

“The reasons for the uptick vary and may involve complex sociodemographic changes in the population, but the findings are clear: More people are consuming alcohol now than in the early 1990s,” said Dr. Raul Caetano , dean of the Southwestern School of Health Professions and lead author of the paper available online and in the October issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.   > > > >

Thursday, September 30, 2010

Can stand-alone computer-based interventions reduce alcohol consumption? A systematic rev

To determine the effects of computer-based interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption in adult populations.
The review was undertaken following standard Cochrane and PRISMA guidance for systematic reviews. The literature was searched until December 2008, with no restrictions on language. Randomised trials with parallel comparator groups were identified in the form of published and unpublished data. Two authors independently screened abstracts and papers for inclusion. Data extraction and bias assessment was undertaken by one author and checked by a second author. Studies that measured total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking episodes were eligible for inclusion in meta-analyses. A random-effects model was used to pool mean differences.
Twenty-four studies were included in the review (19 combined in meta-analyses). The meta-analyses suggested that computer-based interventions were more effective than minimally active comparator groups (e.g. assessment-only) at reducing alcohol consumed per week in student and non-student populations. However, most studies used the mean to summarise skewed data, which could be misleading in small samples. A sensitivity analysis of those studies that used suitable measures of central tendency found there was no difference between intervention and minimally active comparator groups in alcohol consumed per week by students. Few studies investigated non-student populations or compared interventions with active comparator groups.
Computer-based interventions may reduce alcohol consumption compared with assessment only the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the studies.

Future research should consider that the distribution of alcohol consumption data is likely to be skewed and that appropriate measures of central tendency are reported.

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Response to commentaries

Paul Meehl, a brilliant human, major figure in psychological science and occasional mentor in my formative
years in training commented more than once on back and-forth arguments, regardless of their intellectual merit. He ‘suggested’ one convey ones perspective, listened to the counterpoint(s) and then go off to ponder the merits of each position. This, rather than continued debate (usually at louder volume, or with more vociferous
comment) he mused, would generate rational development
in any arena. Occasionally I have had the will and wisdom to follow this dictum and this would seem an apt opportunity.
    > > > >

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Commentary on Grabowski (2010): Our map should correspond with the territory

Having recently chaired a policy study group in theWhite House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), which concluded unanimously that a merger of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism would benefit research and public health [1], I was cheered to see Grabowski [2] come to the same conclusion. Both of us are echoing an earlier recommendation from the Institute of Medicine [3]. In this commentary, I supplement Grabowski’s case for a combined institute with some historical evidence on the changing face of substance use in
the United States. Because support of the proposed merger is often attributed to being the inbuilt bias of ‘NIDA people’, let me aver for the record that I have never applied for a grant from NIDA, nor served on any NIDA committee. Indeed, I have in fact been extensively funded by and involved in the operations of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) for many years (e.g. study section member, research portfolio advisor, center grant advisory board member and reviewer).   

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Commentary on Grabowski (2010): A dissenting view from one who has known both NIDA and NIAAA

There may be pros and cons associated with retaining or changing the present structure of separate institutes for alcoholism and drug addiction at the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), but the position paper by Dr John Grabowski [1] is unhelpful to a consideration of the issues. His piece includes attacks on the accomplishments of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) [relative to the National Institute on Drug Addiction (NIDA)], as well as some major and minor historical inaccuracies and personal criticism of two past directors of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and current staff at the Institute.  > > > >

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Commentary on Grabowski (2010): ‘The Name Game’

Dr Grabowski’s [1] provocative article supports the integration of the National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Addiction (NIDA) and even proposes a name for this new agency. My response is both on  of caution and trepidation. I suspect that there are more factors in this complex matter that must be considered, and I fear that the arguments for the National Institute on Substance Use Disorders (NISUD) focus mainly upon the disorders and addiction side of NIDA and NIAAA at the serious
diminution of environmental and other social forces that continue to impact significantly substance use and abuse.   > > > > 

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Commentary on Grabowski (2010): NISUD—progress, backlash or sidetrack?

In his paper, Grabowski [1] argues that the organization
of US alcohol and drug research in separate National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes is obsolete. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Addiction (NIDA) have different historical origins, different roles in
policy development and research agendas. Currently, however, the situation is characterized by overlapping scientific methods, research questions and projects. Competing training programs drain insufficient resources. Cost–benefit and cost-effectiveness considerations would favor joint organization. One should build an integrated organization logically and possibly save costs needed for research activities. There is a potential for ‘stunning synergy’. 

  > > > > 

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Personal, family and social functioning among older couples concordant and discordant for high-risk alcohol consumption

This study compares the personal, family and social functioning of older husbands and wives concordant or discordant for high-risk alcohol consumption and identifies predictors of changes in concordance and high-risk consumption.
Three groups of couples were identified at baseline and followed 10 years later: (i) concordant couples in which husbands and wives engaged in low-risk alcohol consumption (n = 54); (ii) concordant couples in which husbands and wives engaged in high-risk alcohol consumption (n = 38); and (iii) discordant couples in which one partner engaged in high-risk alcohol consumption and the other partner did not (n = 75). At each follow-up, husbands and wives completed an inventory that assessed their personal, family and social functioning.

Compared to the low-risk concordant group, husbands and wives in the high-risk concordant group were more likely to rely on tension-reduction coping, reported more friend approval of drinking, and were less involved in religious activities; however, they did not differ in the quality of the spousal relationship.

The frequency of alcohol consumption declined among husbands in discordant couples, but not among husbands in concordant couples.

Predictors of high-risk drinking included tension-reduction coping, friend approval of drinking and, for husbands, their wives' level of drinking.
High-risk and discordant alcohol consumption do not seem to be linked to decrements in family functioning among older couples in long-term stable marriages. The predictors of heavy alcohol consumption among older husbands and wives identify points of intervention that may help to reduce their high-risk drinking.

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Impulsivity-related brain volume deficits in schizophrenia-addiction comorbidity

Despite a high prevalence of schizophrenia patients with comorbid substance abuse, little is known about possible impacts on the brain. 

Hence, our goal was to determine whether addicted and non-addicted schizophrenic patients suffer from different brain deficits. We were especially interested to determine if grey matter volumes were affected by impulsivity. 

We hypothesized that (comorbid) substance abuse would be associated with enhanced impulsivity and that this enhanced impulsivity would be related to grey matter volume deficits in prefrontal areas.

We employed a voxel-based morphometry approach as well as neuropsychological assessment of executive functions and trait impulsivity in 51 participants (age range 23–55). The schizophrenia group comprised 24 patients (12 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 12 with additional comorbid substance use disorders). The comparison group comprised 27 non-schizophrenic individuals, matched by age and education (14 healthy individuals and 13 patients with substance use disorders).

Total grey matter volume deficits were found in all patient groups as compared with healthy controls but were largest (∼8%) in both addicted groups. While grey matter volume losses in lateral orbitofrontal and temporal regions were affected by schizophrenia, volume decreases of the medial orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and frontopolar cortex were associated with addiction. 

Compared with non-addicted schizophrenics, comorbid patients showed significant volume decreases in anterior cingulate, frontopolar and superior parietal regions.

Additionally, they showed an increased non-planning impulsivity that was negatively related to grey matter volumes in the same regions, except for parietal ones.

The present study indicates severe grey matter volume and functional executive deficits in schizophrenia, which were only partially exacerbated by comorbid addiction. However, the relationship between non-planning impulsivity and anterior cingulate and frontopolar grey matter volumes points to a specific structure–function relationship that seems to be impaired in schizophrenia-addiction comorbidity. 

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Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data From the January-March 2010 National Health Interview Survey

9. Alcohol consumption 
  • Figure 9.1. Percentage of adults aged 18 years and over who had five or more drinks in 1 day at least once in the past year: United States, 1997-March 2010
  • Figure 9.2. Percentage of adults aged 18 years and over who had five or more drinks in 1 day at least once in the past year, by age group and sex: United States, January-March 2010
  • Figure 9.3. Age-sex-adjusted percentage of adults aged 18 years and over who had five or more drinks in 1 day at least once in the past year, by race/ethnicity: United States, January-March 2010
  • Data tables for Figures 9.1-9.3

PDF Version

First European Conference on FASD

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Growing Awareness in Europe

Wednesday through Friday, November 3 to 5, 2010

The aim of this conference is to bring together European researchers, public health workers, and FAS-related NGOs for the first time in order to share knowledge and promote collaborations. Presentations will cover latest developments worldwide, with an emphasis on European experience:

* Latest research on FASD in Europe

* Public health and preventions

* Diagnosis and intervention

* Consequences for justice and politics

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

The Next Step Towards a Better Life

Describes the stages of recovery from alcohol and drug abuse and what to expect after leaving detoxification services. Offers guidance in adjusting to sobriety just after detox and through long-term recovery; discusses legal issues; and lists resources.

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Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Co-Occurring Disorders

Quick Guide for Mental Health Professionals Based on TIP 42

Guides mental health professionals in the management of clients with co-occurring disorders. Discusses intake/screening and assessment; lists five guiding principles, and describes models and techniques for working effectively with clients. 

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Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice

KAP Keys for Clinicians Based on TIP 49

Provides clinicians with quick reference information about three FDA-approved medications to help patients achieve abstinence from alcohol: acamprosate, disulfiram, and naltrexone (oral and extended-release). Includes patient management tips.

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Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice

Quick Guide for Physicians Based on TIP 49

Guides physicians in the use of medications to help patients achieve abstinence from alcohol. Describes how the medications work, whom they benefit, and side effects for three FDA-approved medications: acamprosate, disulfiram, and naltrexone.

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Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice

Quick Guide for Counselors Based on TIP 49

Guides counselors in the use of medications to help clients achieve abstinence from alcohol. Describes how the medications work, whom they benefit, and side effects for three FDA-approved medications: acamprosate, disulfiram, and naltrexone. 

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Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Health: Current Evidence


Current Issue: July–August 2010

Interventions and Assessments

Health Outcomes

Slide Presentations

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

NIAAA 40th Anniversary Symposium – October 4, 2010

This year marks a major milestone for NIAAA—40 years of supporting alcohol-related research and working to improve public health. NIAAA will commemorate this landmark event by hosting a special 40th Anniversary Symposium.

Join us as we review the current state of alcohol research and explore the future of the field.

NIAAA 40th Anniversary Symposium


October 4, 2010, 9:00 AM – 3:30 PM
5635 Fishers Ln, Terrace Level
Bethesda, MD 20852
9:00 – 9:15 Introduction Kenneth R. Warren, Ph.D.

9:15 – 9:45 Genetic Research: Who is at Risk For Alcoholism? Tatiana Foroud, Ph.D.
Indiana University School of Medicine
9:45 – 10:15 Neuroscience of Alcohol Abuse Edith V. Sullivan, Ph.D.
Stanford University School of Medicine
10:15 – 10:30 Break  
10:30 – 11:00 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Jennifer Thomas, Ph.D.
San Diego State University
11:00 – 11:30 Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Policy Research Robert B. Voas, Ph.D.
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
11:30 – 12:00 Panel Discussion  
12:00 – 12:45 Lunch  

12:45 – 1:15 Alcohol, Immunity, and Health Pranoti Mandrekar, Ph.D.
University of Massachusetts Medical Center
1:15 – 1:45 Drinking, Binge Drinking, and Associated Consequences Among U.S. Ethic Minorities Raul Caetano, M.D., Ph.D.
University of Texas School of Public Health
1:45 – 2:00 Break  
2:00 – 2:30 Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking Michael Windle, Ph.D.
Emory University
2:30 – 3:00 Focus on Comorbid Mental Health Disorders Robert M. Anthenelli, M.D.
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center
3:00 – 3:30 Panel Discussion
3:30 Wrap up Kenneth R. Warren, Ph.D.

The impact of introducing a minimum price on alcohol in Britain

In this Briefing Note, we use detailed data on the grocery shopping of more than 25,000 households during 2007 to provide descriptive evidence of alcohol purchases from supermarkets and other off-licensed premises retailers. 

We calculate the impact of a 45p per unit minimum price and describe how different households and retailers would be affected. Our calculations are based on a number of assumptions about consumer and firm behaviour which we discuss; more precise estimates would require estimation of a detailed model of household purchasing and firm pricing decisions. Our figures are based on a sample of households from Great Britain and we consider a minimum price that is applied nationally. 

We estimate that if a policy like this were rolled out across Britain it could transfer £700 million from alcohol consumers to retailers and manufacturers. This contrasts to increases in alcohol taxes, which largely result in transfers to government in the form of much needed tax revenue.

In the long-term, it would be desirable to restructure alcohol taxes so that they were based on alcohol strength, thus allowing the tax system to mimic the impact of a minimum price but ensuring the additional revenues went to the Government rather than firms. 

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Monday, September 27, 2010

Alcohol expectancy changes over a 12-week cognitive–behavioral therapy program are predictive of treatment success

This study examines if outcome expectancies (perceived consequences of engaging in certain behavior) and self-efficacy expectancies (confidence in personal capacity to regulate behavior) contribute to treatment outcome for alcohol dependence.  Few clinical studies have examined these constructs.

The Drinking Expectancy Profile (DEP), a psychometric measure of alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy, was administered to 298 alcohol-dependent patients (207 males) at assessment and on completion of a 12-week cognitive–behavioral therapy alcohol abstinence program.

Baseline measures of expectancy and self-efficacy were not strong predictors of outcome. However, for the 164 patients who completed treatment, all alcohol expectancy and self-efficacy factors of the DEP showed change over time. The DEP scores approximated community norms at the end of treatment. 

Discriminant analysis indicated that change in social pressure drinking refusal self-efficacy, sexual enhancement expectancies, and assertion expectancies successfully discriminated those who successfully completed treatment from those who did not. 

Future research should examine the basis of expectancies related to social functioning as a possible mechanism of treatment response and a means to enhance treatment outcome.

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The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale Is a Valid Measure of Alcohol Craving in Young Adults

Alcohol craving is associated with greater alcohol-related problems and less favorable treatment prognosis. The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) is the most widely used alcohol craving instrument. The OCDS has been validated in adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), which typically emerge in early adulthood. 

This study examines the validity of the OCDS in a nonclinical sample of young adults.

Three hundred and nine college students (mean age of 21.8 years, SD = 4.6 years) completed the OCDS, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and measures of alcohol consumption. Subjects were randomly allocated to 2 samples. Construct validity was examined via exploratory factor analysis (= 155) and confirmatory factor analysis (= 154). Concurrent validity was assessed using the AUDIT and measures of alcohol consumption. A second, alcohol-dependent sample (mean age 42 years, SD 12 years) from a previously published study (n = 370) was used to assess discriminant validity.
A unique young adult OCDS factor structure was validated, consisting of Interference/Control, Frequency of Obsessions, Alcohol Consumption and Resisting Obsessions/Compulsions. 

The young adult 4-factor structure was significantly associated with the AUDIT and alcohol consumption. 

The 4 factor OCDS successfully classified nonclinical subjects in 96.9% of cases and the older alcohol-dependent patients in 83.7% of cases. Although the OCDS was able to classify college nonproblem drinkers (AUDIT <13, n = 224) with 83.2% accuracy, it was no better than chance (49.4%) in classifying potential college problem drinkers (AUDIT score ≥13, n = 85).

Using the 4-factor structure, the OCDS is a valid measure of alcohol craving in young adult populations. In this nonclinical set of students, the OCDS classified nonproblem drinkers well but not problem drinkers. 

Studies need to further examine the utility of the OCDS in young people with alcohol misuse.

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A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Change in Drinking following Alcohol Treatment

The ultimate goal of alcohol treatment research is to develop interventions that help individuals reduce their alcohol use. 

To determine whether a treatment is effective, researchers must then evaluate whether a particular treatment affects changes in drinking behavior after treatment. Importantly, drinking following treatment tends to be highly variable between individuals and within individuals across time.
Using data from the COMBINE study (COMBINE Study Group, 2003), the current study compared 3 commonly used and novel methods for analyzing changes in drinking over time: latent growth curve (LGC) analysis, growth mixture models, and latent Markov models.

Specifically, using self-reported drinking data from all participants (= 1,383, 69% male), we were interested in examining how well the 3 estimated models were able to explain observed changes in percent heavy drinking days during the 52 weeks following treatment.
The results from all 3 models indicated that the majority of individuals were either abstinent or reported few heavy drinking days during the 52-week follow-up and only a minority of individuals (10% or fewer) reported consistently frequent heavy drinking following treatment.

All 3 models provided a reasonably good fit to the observed data with the latent Markov models providing the closest fit. 

The observed drinking trajectories evinced discontinuity, whereby individuals seem to transition between drinking and nondrinking across adjacent follow-up assessment points. 

The LGC and growth mixture models both assumed continuous change and could not explain this discontinuity in the observed drinking trajectories, whereas the latent Markov approach explicitly modeled transitions between drinking states.
The 3 models tested in the current study provided a unique look at the observed drinking among individuals who received treatment for alcohol dependence. 

Latent Markov modeling may be a highly desirable methodology for gaining a better sense of transitions between positive and negative drinking outcomes.

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Aversive Effects of Ethanol in Adolescent Versus Adult Rats: Potential Causes and Implication for Future Drinking

Many people experiment with alcohol and other drugs of abuse during their teenage years. Epidemiological evidence suggests that younger initiates into drug taking are more likely to develop problematic drug seeking behavior, including binge and other high-intake behaviors.

The level of drug intake for any individual depends on the balance of rewarding and aversive effects of the drug in that individual.

Multiple rodent studies have demonstrated that aversive effects of drugs of abuse are reduced in adolescent compared to adult animals. 

In this study, we addressed 2 key questions: First, do reduced aversive effects of ethanol in younger rats correlate with increased ethanol consumption? Second, are the reduced aversive effects in adolescents attributable to reduced sensitivity to ethanol’s physiologic effects?
Adolescent and adult rats were tested for ethanol conditioned taste aversion (CTA) followed by a voluntary drinking period, including postdeprivation consumption. Multivariate regression was used to assess correlations. In separate experiments, adolescent and adult rats were tested for their sensitivity to the hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, and for blood ethanol concentrations (BECs).
We observed that in adolescent rats but not adults, taste aversion was inversely correlated with postdeprivation consumption. 

Adolescents also exhibited a greater increase in consumption after deprivation than adults. 

Furthermore, the age difference in ethanol CTA was not attributable to differences in hypothermia, sedation, or BECs.
These results suggest that during adolescence, individuals that are insensitive to aversive effects are most likely to develop problem drinking behaviors.

These results underscore the importance of the interaction between developmental stage and individual variation in sensitivity to alcohol.

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Do Smooth Waters Run Deep? Alcohol Intoxication and the Effects of Water Consumption on Driving-Related Cognitions and Behavior

The present study tested the effect of the combined use of alcohol and water on driving-related cognitions and behavior. 

Seventy-four female students performed a driving simulator task after having consumed alcohol or a placebo. Additionally, half of the participants consumed 0.5 liter of water.

It was hypothesized that combining alcohol and water could lead to an underestimated perceived intoxication level resulting in more favorable driving cognitions and increased risk behavior.

Our findings showed that the combined use of water and alcohol did not affect cognitions or behavior.

Surprisingly, in the placebo condition, water intake increased risky driving cognitions and behavior in women with a history of accident involvement.

Lacking a clear counterproductive effect when combined with alcohol, water could be a useful tool in limiting alcohol use among female drinkers.

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Alcohol News - 39/2010

Scotsman (Finland) - Finnish experience suggests price can have strong effect
THE Finnish experience is one which has influenced opinion- formers who have argued vociferously that the price of alcohol has a strong effect on consumption. In Finland, tax on alcohol was cut six years ago, leading to price reductions of up to a third, depending on the type of alcohol.

Estonian Public Broadcasting (Estonia) - The Vodka Diaries
Are Estonia's policymakers aware that their country has a drinking problem? When you think of a drunk, a certain image may come to mind. Maybe he has rosy cheeks, a scruffy white beard, and a mouth half full of yellow teeth. But living in Estonia, I have seen all kinds of drunks: young kids in tracksuits, old men in rags, round ladies with bad haircuts.

U.S. News & World Report (USA) - Pediatricians Want to Restrict Ads for Tobacco, Booze, Viagra
The American Academy of Pediatrics doesn't want children exposed to tobacco ads at all, and wants to limit their exposure to alcohol marketing and advertisements for erectile dysfunction drugs and other prescription medications.

Medical News Today - Frequent Family Dinners Linked To Lower Tobacco, Alcohol And Marijuana Use Among Teens
American teenagers who regularly have family dinners are much less likely to have used drugs, alcohol or marijuana compared to their peers who have family dinners infrequently, according to a new study - The Importance of Family Dinners VI - carried out by researchers from The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), Columbia University.

Philippine Information Agency (Philippines) - Doctors group back higher 'sin' taxes for tobacco, alcohol
The Philippine Medical Association (PMA) through its President Oscar D. Tinio, M.D. expressed full support to President Benigno Aquino III's call for higher 'sin' taxes to generate additional tax revenue for the government.

Private Healthcare UK - Alcohol recovery 'impacted by stress'
High levels of a stress hormone could be having a negative impact on recovering alcoholics.

Voxy (Australia) - De-Normalisation - How To Reduce Alcohol Harm Amongst Young People
Research just published in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry shows there are six things that parents can do to reduce the risk of alcohol related harm in their children. These include: - not getting intoxicated in front of them; - not supplying them with alcohol.

BusinessWeek - Booze Tax Hikes May Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems
Boosting taxes on alcohol leads to lower rates of alcohol-related disease, injury, death and crime, researchers say.

Chicago Sun-Times - A little alcohol staggers older drinkers
Older people who have had a couple of cocktails may still be under the legal blood-alcohol limit, but researchers have found some have trouble in walking tests.,CST-NWS-drink26.article

7thSpace Interactive - The association between intimate partner violence, alcohol and depression in family practice
Depressive symptoms, intimate partner violence and hazardous drinking are common among patients attending general practice. Despite the high prevalence of these three problems; the relationship between them remains relatively unexplored.

Richmond Times Dispatch (USA) - VCU report on privatization: increase taxes on alcohol
If Virginia sells its liquor monopoly, the state should take steps to discourage excessive drinking, including raising taxes on alcohol to reduce demand, according to a new report by Virginia Commonwealth University.

PR Newswire(USA) - MADD Marks 30th Anniversary With Capitol Hill Rally Unveiling Tech-Based MADD 3.0 Action Plan to Eliminate Drunk Driving
Thirty years after a grieving mother started the movement to stop drunk driving, and a decade since the successful passage of the lifesaving national .08 BAC limit, hundreds of victims and activists from across the country today rallied at the nation's Capitol to mark Mothers Against Drunk Driving's (MADD) 30th Anniversary and to unveil its MADD 3.0 Action Plan, calling on Congress to pass legislation to eliminate drunk driving in America.

BBC News (UK) - Fresh call for alcohol glass ban
Alcohol should be served far more often in plastic glasses and bottles to reduce the injury toll from violent attacks, says a researcher.

Herald Scotland (Scotland) - Police chief challenges minimum drink price opponents
The chief constable of the country’s biggest police force has issued a challenge to those who voted down minimum alcohol pricing this week to come up with an alternative.

Radio New Zealand (New Zealand) - Cabinet rejects advice on lowering alcohol limit
The Government made a mistake when it rejected hundreds of pages of official advice encouraging it to lower the adult blood alcohol level, health lobby groups say.

UK Net Guide (Scotland) - Minimum alcohol price plans defeated by MSPs
MSPs have rejected the Scottish government's proposal to introduce a minimum price for alcohol.

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Press Release - SMART Recovery Announces 600th Meeting

SMART Recovery announces its 600th meeting as it continues expanding face-to-face group meetings nationally and internationally. SMART Recovery, the leading self-empowering addiction recovery support group, offers tools for overcoming addiction based on the latest scientific research and is now doing so in more and more cities and towns.    > > > >

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Nalmefene for treatment of alcohol dependence

Alcohol use and dependence are frequent disorders. Despite numerous established psychosocial approaches, relapse to heavy drinking is common in alcohol-dependent patients after detoxification and relapse prevention remains a significant medical challenge.

The opioidergic system plays a crucial role in mediating the rewarding effects of alcohol, in part by modulating dopaminergic neurotransmission in mesolimbic brain areas.

This review will discuss the neurochemical basis of alcoholism with respect to the opiodergic system. Nalmefene is an alternate opioid receptor that also targets the kappa opioid receptors and thus offers a different treatment approach. The treatment studies conducted so far are discussed.

We present a comprehensive overview of the implication of the opioidergic system in mediating the rewarding effects of alcoholism and the preclinical and clinical studies conducted so far with nalmefene.

Although the number of clinical studies conducted with naltrexone by far exceeds the number conducted with nalmefene, the four studies on nalmefene published so far may indicate a role of this opioid antagonist in the treatment of alcoholism.

Results of some ongoing studies on nalmefene will provide additional data on its use for this indication.

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NIAAA Director's Report on Institute Activities to the 125th Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - September 23, 2010


A.  Legislation, Budget, and Policy F. News Media Interactions
B. Director's Activities G. NIAAA Staff and Organization
C. Staff Honors H. What's Ahead
D. Press Releases

I. NIAAA Program Annoucement and Request for Applications Information
E. Multi-Media Products J. NIAAA Research Programs